Posted in learning, Psychology

Effortful Learning: Synthesis​

Learning is an effortful process, as demonstrated in the last three blogs. This synthesis will reinforce the notion of effortful learning, with the goal of inspiring other individuals to reflect on their learning and question the current system of education.

As mentioned in the post about desirable difficulties, the brain and memory are less of a filing cabinet, but more of a muscle. When novel information has entered the mind, the information must be rehearsed for it to be encoded within long-term memory, much like working out the muscle to keep fit; if the memory is not repeated or muscle is not worked out, both slowly diminish.

In the case of desirable difficulties, the information obtained must be continuously reviewed over a more considerable amount of time (testing and spacing effects) to maintain the information both time and energy must be applied.

Unfortunately, teachers do a lot of the work of learning for us. By organizing the material onto slides (organizational effect) that allows for easier comprehension of the material in a way that diminished attention (disfluency effect), so that little effort is needed by the student to understand the material. Not only do teachers do the work for us, but the traditional structure of education and standardized testing assist students with fast-tracking of information so that they can obtain a high grade through a multiple choice exam. With the goal of the education system to achieve A high GPA and test results; which is pursued by both students and teachers. It appears that teachers and post-secondary institutes want students to succeed only in the form of grades as that is how they measure success. Providing students with effort-less learning contradicts how learning is acquired: through effort, time, persistence, and difficulty, not through the ability to fill in a bubble on a scantron sheet.

The current study techniques as illustrated in my prior post consist of cramming, lecture slides, highlighters, flashcards, and the list of ineffective study techniques goes on and on. But for learning to be meaningful and active, students cannot merely rely on surface level strategies such as rereading the textbook or highlighting their notes. Unfortunately, these methods achieve decent if not exceptional results within grading, but the function of the current education is to make learning easy, but learning should not be easy, as emphasized in previous posts.

In conjunction with the effort-less student strategies, learning is individualized. By this I mean, that unless students form a study group, studying and learning is done as an individualized activity.  For example, in our Camus library, there are more isolated cubicles than study rooms or work tables, which promotes secluded studying. In individualistic societies, collective learning and test taking in the classroom are frowned upon; many call it cheating.

By not giving students the opportunity to see different perspectives, discuss, reflect on and challenge the information with each other, students become used to learning in one manner which is lecture halls and isolated. Resulting in a lack of effort because students are habituated to the same environment, and less attention is needed to succeed, so studying becomes subjective. This is because of this set structure of individualized learning and lecture halls, other forms of learning or feedback never occur (differentiated instruction delayed feedback). To illustrate this lack of effort and individualization for students, a news article recently came out that states that millennials would give up their right to vote for the next two elections to have their student loan debt forgiven. To some, this may be an acceptable choice, but to a majority of people, this is shocking. This example shows how millennials and a portion of society think individualistically rather than thinking of the collective. Now whether this choice is due to an overabundance of debt, the lack of effort it takes to vote, or that their vote doesn’t matter, it still reflects the focus of individualized effort rather than collective effort.

At this state, it appears that studying and learning are done without any scientific evidence, even go against psychology and how we actually learn; education and learning have become subjective, in the way that their methods are based upon tradition and opinion. But as we have seen in the SAFMEDS post, learning should not be subjective, and that there is a significant amount of psychology within learning, to make learning more effective in the long run. With this being said, I end this synthesis with one question: Do C’s really get degrees? I believe so.

The featured image, although disturbing, is an accurate portrayal of the learning, knowledge, and effort within the education system.

References

Blumberg, J. (2017). 50% of millennials would give up this fundamental American right to have their student loans forgivenCNBC. Retrieved 24 November 2017, from https://www.cnbc.com/2017/09/29/millennials-would-give-up-this-right-to-wipe-out-their-student-loans.html

Dangel, H. (2017). Effortful Retrieval | Center for Excellence in Teaching and LearningSites.gsu.edu. Retrieved 24 November 2017, from http://sites.gsu.edu/scholarlyteaching/effortful-retrieval/

Davis, M. (2017). How Collaborative Learning Leads to Student SuccessEdutopia. Retrieved 24 November 2017, from https://www.edutopia.org/stw-collaborative-learning-college-prep

Hopper, E. (2017). Individualist or Collectivist? How Culture Influences BehaviorHealthyPsych.com. Retrieved 24 November 2017, from https://healthypsych.com/individualist-or-collectivist-how-culture-influences-behavior/

Introduction to cooperative learning. (2017). En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 24 November 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Introduction_to_cooperative_learning

Introduction to cooperative learning. (2017). En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 24 November 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Introduction_to_cooperative_learning

Learning Myths vs. Learning Facts – The Effortful Educator. (2017). The Effortful Educator. Retrieved 24 November 2017, from https://theeffortfuleducator.com/2017/07/17/learning-myths-vs-learning-facts/

McFeeters, F. (2017). The Effects of Individualism Vs. Collectivism on Learner’s Recall, Transfer, and Attitudes Toward Collaboration and Individualized Learning (PH’D). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

McGarry, K. (2017). effortful learning: desirable difficulty. Cognitive Mindset. Retrieved from https://kassiemcgarry.wordpress.com/2017/10/27/effortful-learning-desirable-difficulty/

McGarry, K. (2017). Effortful Learning: ineffective Pedagogy and Academia. Cognitive Mindset. Retrieved from https://kassiemcgarry.wordpress.com/2017/11/10/ineffective-pedagogy-and-academia/

McGarry, K. (2017). Effortful Learning: SAFMEDS. Cognitive Mindset. Retrieved from https://kassiemcgarry.wordpress.com/2017/11/03/effortful-learning-application-of-safmeds-2/

No authorship indicated. (1987). Learning Together and Alone: Cooperative, Competitive, and Individualistic Learning (2nd ed.). Psyccritiques32(6). http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/027279

 

Posted in learning, Psychology

Effortful Learning: Ineffective Pedagogy and Academia

In a typical year or degree, undergraduates academia consists of cramming, flashcards, lectures, highlighting which all seem to be a must-have or go to method of learning. As I will demonstrate these methods are less effective than we may believe.

The first ineffective method of studying is cramming. It seems that cramming is a rite of passage, where you only become a real student if you cram at least one within your undergrad degree. Cramming is defined as forcing something into a tight or crowded area. This typically involves last-minute preparation for an exam, paper, or assignment. Unfortunately, cramming comes at a high cost of wellness, such as eating regularly (coffee does not count as food, sorry), and of course sleep. A study was done where they sleep deprived student for 36 hours and measured the effects with visual stimuli. The result of the study was an exaggerated reaction and impaired mental function. The students provided euphoric reactions to neutral visual images and produced more risky behavior because of the heightened activity in the Mesolimbic system (reward pathway). In addition to the euphoric responses, they had an impaired mental function where the students have difficulty studying the day after because they were so sleep deprived. It seems that as we are trying to increase our cognitive function by sacrificing sleep and wellness, we end up doing more harm and damage to our brain than if were to just go and sleep for a few more hours.

Lectures and PowerPoint, they seem to be one of the first, if not the only go-to methods in the teaching arsenal. It seems that lecturing and PowerPoints are a rite of passage, where you only become a real teacher if you lecture and create a reusable PowerPoint at least once within your teaching career. I recently went to a panel discussion, where a professor defended lecturing and PowerPoints. He claimed that lecturing is a method that is used to fast-track information to the students, while providing an overview, focus on a range of material, and showing students to critically think. During the presentation, he did make a few historical points, in that lecturing dates to medieval times, going back 700-800 years.

The image on the left is a lecture at the University of Bologna in Italy in the mid-fourteenth century (“Lecture,” 2017). The image in the middle is a modern lecture hall in a post-secondary. The image on the right is a modern movie theater. All three look very similar, of the three, the least useful setting, is the one in the middle. I say this because the lecture in Italy was one of the only ways the students got information. While with the movie theatre, the audience is entertained at a cheaper cost of only $10-20 per show, rather than $500-$2000 for the semester (and at least at the movie theatre, the audience can see Ryan Reynolds while eating popcorn).

Regarding PowerPoint, they seem to be a teacher’s only tool within their teaching arsenal. The original purpose of PowerPoint was for business presentations, to show graphs and data. Robert Gaskin, the designer of PowerPoint, stated that “I did not target other existing large groups of users of presentations, such as school teachers or military officers. … I also did not plan to target people who were not existing users of presentations … such as clergy and school children … our focus was purely on business users, in small and large companies, from one person to the largest multinationals” (“Microsoft PowerPoint,” 2017).

Flashcards. The history of flashcards or index cards was created by Carl Linnaeus in the 1900’s, who wanted a system for organization where he could arrange and organize data easily. Flashcards have been used by many people for similar functions, like cataloging, and now is one of the most popular study aid for students. There are many different forms of flashcards (index cards, colored coded cards, digital cards) that all have the same function– self-testing. However, are they useful? I do not think so. Although they are a form of self-testing, they influence ineffective studying, by promoting serial anticipation or (learning) effect, and a lack of associative learning. Serial anticipation is where items are learned because of the sequence or order they are in. Regarding flashcards, many students tend to study flashcards in the same order, so they are learning the order of the cards as much as the cards themselves. Which when the cards are mixed up or in a different order, students have difficulty answering recalling the cards because the order is no longer available. Therefore, the SAFMEDS method is more efficient, purely on the spaced repetition and shuffling of the cards daily.  The lack of associative learning also prevents effective learning. Typically, flashcards are consist of isolated information. “Flashcards only focus on pure memorization and/or recognition; not associative learning, knowledge or understanding”(McGarry, 2017). Thus they are useless when it comes to practical learning.

Highlighters seem to be the main purchase after or even before flashcards. Invented by Dr. Frank Honn in 1963, with the intended purpose to label and find information easier, in other words, highlighter’s sole purpose is for locating information easier, not as a studying method, like most students us them for, where pages from textbooks go from black and white to a psychedelic neon nightmare:

As I had mentioned in my post about desirable difficulties, all the ways mentioned above of learning and studying are entirely ineffective. Cramming completely goes against the spacing effect because the learning is not spaced, thus not be encoded into long-term memory. Lecturing does not offer variety, alertness, and interactivity in term of differentiated instruction, resulting in passive rather than active learning. PowerPoints (as mentioned in my previous post) provides the teacher with more learning than the students because the students do not have to organize the information themselves, it is just provided. Flashcards seem like a proper technique for learning but contradict the testing effect, as they only are useful for recognition, and don’t deal with complex questions, as it is difficult to fit a complex question and answer on an index card, and material is not struggled with because the answer is easily accessible on the back side of the flashcard. Highlighting should only be used as a colorful way to locate text, as by making the information more accessible to find it again goes against the disfluency effect, as information should be more difficult to comprehend, so more attention is put forth, so unless you are planning on highlighting the entire page with a dark blue, making the text difficult to see, then highlighter is useless for learning but excellent for locating.

So, if these ineffective strategies are your go-to methods of learning, studying or teaching, then you may want to rethink your approach to education, studying or teaching.

The featured photo is of my favourite aunt: Pam. In this photo, she is pretending to eat rocks, to which these learning strategies are just as effective as eating rocks.

References

Anwar, Y. (2017). Pulling an all-nighter can bring on euphoria and risky behaviorBerkeley News. Retrieved 10 November 2017, from http://news.berkeley.edu/2011/03/22/pulling-an-all-nighter/

Granoff, D. (2017). All-Nighters Found to Cause Euphoria … and Brain Damage | Flyby | The Harvard CrimsonThecrimson.com. Retrieved 10 November 2017, from http://www.thecrimson.com/flyby/article/2011/3/25/sleep-yoo-brain-study/

Heibutzki, R. (2017). Cite a Website – Cite This For MeEducation.seattlepi.com. Retrieved 10 November 2017, from http://education.seattlepi.com/effects-cramming-test-2719.html

Highlighter. (2017). En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 10 November 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Highlighter#cite_note-3

History of Highlighters – Who Invented Highlighter?. (2017). Historyofpencils.com. Retrieved 10 November 2017, from http://www.historyofpencils.com/writing-instruments-history/history-of-highlighters/

Index card. (2017). En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 10 November 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Index_card

Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. (2008). Optimising self-regulated study: The benefits—and costs—of dropping flashcards. Memory16(2), 125-136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09658210701763899

Lecture. (2017). En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 10 November 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lecture

McGarry, K. (2017). Effortful Learning: Application of SAFMEDSCognitive mindset. Retrieved 10 November 2017, from https://kassiemcgarry.wordpress.com/2017/11/03/effortful-learning-application-of-safmeds-2/

McGarry, K. (2017). Effortful Learning: Desirable DifficultyCognitive mindset. Retrieved 10 November 2017, from https://kassiemcgarry.wordpress.com/2017/10/27/effortful-learning-desirable-difficulty/

McGarry, K. (2017). Liquid NetworkingCognitive mindset. Retrieved 10 November 2017, from https://kassiemcgarry.wordpress.com/2017/10/13/liquid-networking/

Microsoft PowerPoint. (2017). En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 10 November 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_PowerPoint

Serial anticipation method – Oxford Reference. (2017). Oxfordreference.com. Retrieved 10 November 2017, from http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100455881