Posted in Photography, Psychology, Writing

Could Brain Damage Cause Brilliance?

The New York Times features an article about using cognitive brain manipulation to explore mental disabilities such as autism. This article leads to future possibilities that could have a huge impact on how mental disorders are studied. This article begins by the author discovering new skills, such as impressive drawing, through the application of electrodes of certain brain regions. The electrode experiment led to further investigation into the ability to manipulate human cognition past their mental capacity and provide insight into how the human brain functions. One example of this type of manipulation of brain areas is the research into autism.

Allen Snyder developed a theory while studying autism called the Savant theory. Snyder theorizes that a small number of people with autism can perform super specialized mental acts. These acts can include learning new languages without any formal training or impressive drawing skill.

The unlimited mental capacity within people with autism leads to the larger question of the neurological impairment that causes autism. Could neurological impairment be the cause of such genius-like abilities? With this line of questioning, I wonder if higher brain capacity is caused by lack of brainpower.

An analogy that I think relays this thinking is having all your eggs in one basket. By having more brain area impairment, more time and neurons are applied to fewer brain areas as compared to multiple brain regions. The experiment to investigate this savant theory was tested by the manipulation of electrodes to shut down parts of the brain. This type of testing can also give people with normal functioning brains gives a glimpse into the reality that people with mental disabilities deal with daily.

By manipulating certain brain areas, changing the way people perform and think can provide more intense and scientific research into what causes mental disabilities.  It could also change the way we think in unexpected ways

Not only can we determine the underlying cause of mental disorders, it but can also assist in the treatment of mental disorders. This treatment and cause for mental disorders can be achieved by stimulating other areas of the brain to dispel syndromes and side effects of mental disorders by using a normal functioning brain to create autistic syndromes.

In summary, not only can brain manipulation help with treatment and prevention, it can also assist with therapy. This technique could be used as a therapy where people can learn what is it like to have a mental disability. By gaining a new perspective and appreciation for people who deal with daily mental difficulties.

This week’s featured photo is of graduation shoes, which is symbolic of this blog post, by allowing people to walk a mile in someone else’s shoes. whether this is through shoes or brain manipulation.

Posted in Photography, Psychology

Warning: People Under Creative Influence.

This is a followup blog to my first blog on creativity.

What role does creative instruction have in creativity? Everyone says that creativity is increased by constraints, but nobody has questioned how creative instruction affects creativity.  Finding out how creative instruction affects creativity, could affect educators, businesses and other professionals investigating creativity and provide a different perspective when applying such constraints as self-imposed, situational and material constraints.

How is creativity defined? Depending on what context creativity is being discussed, determined how it is defined. When talking about creativity from an artistic perspective, creativity is defined as a trait or talent, that only the elite portray. from a psychological perspective, creativity is a skill that one must develop, but still portraying the idea that only some can develop such a skill. From a scientific perspective, creativity is a type of thinking or intelligence, which is referred to as divergent thinking. With this divergent thinking, it is still emphasizing that to think divergently, but people portray different type of thinking, where some are more divergent thinkers and others are more convergent thinkers. Excluding the idea that everyone can think creativity, leads again to the notion that creativity, whether it is defined as a trait, skill or intelligence, it still leads to the idea that creativity is only for those with such an elite ability as creativity. I think creativity is defined as a type of mindset. By labeling a task creative, it allows the participant to believe that they must think outside the box, or in a unique way, resulting in a more creative outcome.

Constraints are defined as a barrier that restricts, or blocks something or someone towards a goal. Constraints affect one’s behaviour, or thinking when trying to strike towards a goal or complete a task, which is seen negatively. But when talking about constraints in the context of creativity, constraints are discussed in more of a positive light. By applying constraints to creativity, it can limit ones thinking, allowing that individual to restructure the task at hand, or re-evaluate their thinking or ability to the task or goal, through limitations. There are different types of constraints that are often applied to creativity. The first is self-imposed constraints, this is where one applies their own constraints, as a w ay of self-control. Examples of self-imposed constraints are to apply a time limit or deadline. Limiting the use of materials that one can use, which can be in the form of limiting art materials when drawing or painting, and limiting the subject matter.  The second type of constraints is situational constraints, constraints applied are outside of the person’s control which forces that individual to restructure the task or redirect the goal accommodate the constraints. Examples of situational constraints are limited materials, limited time, or additional tasks to complete a goal. Both the self-imposed and situational constraints serve as the two main types of constraints, but there is another type of constraints that is arbitrary, but can still impose different behaviours or thinking when applied to task or goal. These constraints are known as arbitrary constraints. Examples of arbitrary constraints are personality type, or type of intelligence. where although these personality and intelligence are not visible or physical constraints, they still impose boundaries and limitations.

Creative instruction is a type of instruction that informs an individual to think a different or unique manner. By using keywords such as: creativity, make, build, or imagination. By applying creative instruction to a task, it is like applying an arbitrary constraint or label to the task at hand.

So with a different definition of creativity, being defined as a mindset, that means that creativity is no longer for the elite, but for everyone.

For this week’s featured photo, is of my cousin Sarah. She is not the most creative person, but by implying to do something wacky, or crazy, she gave me this face.

 

 

Posted in Photography, Psychology

Reflection Blog: What have I learned?

So with this being my last blog that I will be doing for my social cognition class. We are forced by Dr.Jesse martin to write a reflection blog instructing us to tell the world how great his class is. Just Kidding. But what have I learned in in class? Well a better question would be what haven’t I learned, but we’ll go with the first question anyways.

One of the first things that I have learned is that there is a huge difference between teaching and learning, to which it is not seen within the education system. What I mean by this is that teaching doesn’t have to be done by an experience man in a suit or tie, or even by Bill Nye the science Guy: Bill-Nye-4hTeaching can be done by the students.  Learning doesn’t have to be done in a conformed lecture hall where all the students sit facing forward and keep their head down while the teacher/instructor lectures. Learning can occur through discussion and blog posts that spark pure passion and interest because students can freely choose what interests them the most. Leaning doesn’t have to occur in a classroom.and it doesn’t have to occur under the structure of taking a course through a university at $500 per course.

This leads to the second thing that I have learned. which is that our education system has failed us, turning us all into robots where we crave structure and order. This is because we have spent 12 plus years being told to conform, which can stripped us of creative thinking. where we can’t think creativity without constraints.

The third thing that I have learned is that I unfortunately have low confidence and seek constant approval from others. Sad but true.

I think that with the help of this class, as well as the rest of my other classes this semester, I am finally experiencing my “Elle Woods Moment”. In the epic movie, legally blonde,  Elle woods, a blonde sorority queen is dumped by her boyfriend. She decides to follow him to Harvard law school to get him back.  Once there, learns she has more legal savvy  and skill than she ever imagined. where she goes from the school joke to graduating top in her class. That just like Elle woods, I thought that my ideas and thoughts were half-baked, and they and I had no value, that i was trying to be something that i not which is studying psychology. But this is not the case!  I have ideas, and skills that can get me places.

Things that I have learned that are class related are such things as: How social cognition can be applied to less relevant topics that can be unrelated to psychology. and example of this studying the psychology behind pop culture, color psychology, body language, the psychology of evil, and of course creativity. So if anybody wants to donate $300, to take the Psychology of evil by Dr. Jesse Martin, I can continue learning  and growing. With the help of this class, I have discovered that a blog is a wonderful way to get my ideas and thought about the world, out into the world, to which I can hopefully open a few people’s eyes to what is around us and how we are impacted by things such as pop culture.

With all of these life lessons  that have provoked warm and fuzzy feelings,  I have learned that I’m not just a student, but a scholar!

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So, with it being the end of an era (for this class). I would like to thank Jesse Martin for an amazing class. For those who read my blog outside of class assignments I hope you continue to read this blog, as I have a lot more to say and will continuing blogging.

For this week’s feature photo I decided that with summer just around the corner and with the few days that I have had I wanted to put up a photo that was happy. Enjoy!giphy

Posted in Photography, Psychology

Psychology of Pop Culture: Sense of Belonging

My third post analyzing the psychology behind pop culture will focus on the notion that pop culture provides a sense of belonging. This effect is known by a few names such as need for affiliation, sense of belonging or belongingness. The need for affliction is defined as a person’s need to feel a sense of involvement and belonging within a social group. This was coined by David McClelland. To have a sense of belonging means to have a human connection or emotional need to be accepted by someone or a group. As social beings, we have a need for human contact and belonging.

One famous study or theory on the topic belongingness is A.H. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. After basic needs, there are the psychological needs. This features belongingness and love which comes from relationships and friendships. Psychological needs can be defined as mental or emotional needs that help us to achieve self-actualization. This can even stem to Harry Harlow’s idea of belonging and attachment. With the work of Harry Harlow and his adorable baby rhesus monkeys. he discovered that we need social contact to thrive, whether that connection comes from a wire mother, cloth mother, family or more accurately social contact that provides us with happiness, satisfaction, and security. This I believe can apply within pop culture as well.

Normally when we think about having a sense to belong, it’s about family, friends, or high school social cliques, but having a sense of belonging can also appear in pop culture. When you belong to a group, you get feeling of acceptance, where you feel all warm and fuzzy inside because you are no longer socially isolated. For example, here at the University of Lethbridge there is a club for just about everyone. You have a Religious club, Native American club, Amine club, Object Manipulation club, Fraternities, Sororities, and the ever-popular Gamers club. So, with so many exclusive clubs, it is more than probable to find a group that suits one’s interests to obtain a sense of belonging with a group of friends that share the same interest. Which is part of the reason why you get that warm and fuzzy feeling. Because of being around other people who understand you and share similar interests.

Within the realm of pop culture, although it is mainstream, some people who have more obscure interests like gaming, cosplay, or even drag don’t normally have a sense of belonging within their standard circle of family, and maybe not even with their circle of friends, causing a social isolation. This leads to the in individual seeking out other social relationships and social bonds where they can express their interests with like-minded people. This is where we have the comic cons and hobbyist conventions. After some intense research, I have discovered that there is a club, group, and convention for everyone. Here are some examples:

The Fetish Convention in St. Petersburg, Florida, is an annual convention and trade show focusing on the adult entertainment industry. This includes bondage, latex and their mascot Bernie the Bondage Bunny.

Another unique convention is Bronycon in Baltimore, Maryland. “BronyCon is the world’s largest convention for and by fans of the animated TV series “My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic.” It’s a convention where people from all over the globe come to take part in all activities of My little pony. Including costumes, Bronypalooza which is market for all things of My Little Pony, and just connect with other “Bronies”.

Anthrocon is a convention for people who love to dress up in furry animal/ mascot costumes, known as Furry fans. These like-minded people participate in workshops, seminars and collectively celebrate Furry Fandom. They even have a Fursuit Parade.

Burning man is an annual gathering for people to explore various forms of artistic self-expression. This festival includes a temporary self-made community where one can freely express themselves without judgement. Their list of ten principals include: “radical inclusion, self-reliance and self-expression, community cooperation, civic responsibility, gifting, decommodification, participation, immediacy and leaving no trace”. (“Burning Man – Welcome Home”, 1989)

These crazy conventions although unique and ridiculous to some all have one thing in common: a sense of belonging for people who have abnormal but similar interest which in this case would be pop culture, giving the people a sense of belonging within pop culture.

One reason why we want to have a sense of belonging is that is can be a form of therapy. Having the opportunity to talk and relate to other like-minded individuals who understand some of the issues that one faces and how to deal with them can be very therapeutic. In the sense that you are not alone. This is like the concept of venting to a friend about family or relationship issues.

Per the relational-cultural theory, we develop a sense of belonging and a connection to others when we feel like we are in a healthy relationship and have a sense of growth as an individual that occur when with that group (Shaw, & Hammer, 2016). This type of belonging occurs in a community like setting, where you are surrounded by other people with similar hobbies or views that you can connect with and develop relationships through acceptance, promoting a sense of belonging. But what about the connection and sense of belonging to a fictitious group of characters that you see in in TV, movies, and pop culture? This occurs in a similar fashion to community based belonging. With the idea that you can relate and share similar experiences with that character. An example of this is with the movie “Perks of Being a Wallflower” starring Logan Lerman, Emma Watson, and Ezra Miller. Whenever I watch this movie I become so sweep up in the story and events, because I experience similar situations and feelings as the character Charlie. The relatable character of Charlie just wants to live a normal life without his mental illness of schizophrenia getting in the way, so through fate he becomes friends with a group extroverted high school seniors who introduce him to a world that he has always observed from a distance or through other people, or by being a wallflower. As I watch the movie I relate to Charlie and start to feel that I am part of the misfit group. Going through the moments that occur and feel the same emotions that the group experiences. Giving me a sense of belonging, and a connection with Charlie, Sam, and Patrick while on the island of misfit toys.

 

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Now what happens when you are unable to obtain a sense e of belong to a social group or pop culture icon?  This is when the notion of social isolation and alienation comes into play. by not having a sense of belonging you can lack satisfaction in life. This can go back to Harlow’s rhesus monkeys. when his rhesus monkeys were socially isolated they became very depression, social damage, and behavioral ailment, and leading to physical ailment, where they even refused to eat. Now this is obviously an extreme case of social isolation, and goes way beyond pop culture and feeling accepted, but the principals are similar. When you are socially isolated from your friends or your pop culture fandom or anything that gives you a sense of belonging, it can be very lonely. An example for this would be it someone where to take your phone away leaving you without any form of social media. It would be very alienating, depressing, etc. But this is where the idea of pop culture comes into play. Thanks to the internet and technology and being more globalized and less localized. Pop culture and social groups are more accessible. through social media, I can feel like I am always connected and have a sense of belonging through virtual means. With Netflix, movies, TV shows, video games, and virtual communities, it provides people with more access and opportunities to relate to other and to always have a sense of belonging through virtual means.

With the crossover of virtual and communal sense of belonging. Is having a fictitious connection in the attempt to gain a sense of belonging as satisfactory as having real-life interactions with physical touch? For example, when we FaceTime or virtually connect with someone, we would probably prefer to be interacting with them in real life, so why do we choose virtual or fictitious over physical?  And is pop culture encouraging a false sense of belonging?

For this week’s Photo, I decided to do a collage of three photos that I took while at Globalfest in Calgary, Alberta. It features three Muslim women that have a sense of belonging through their religion and relationships. That although some people isolate themselves from people who have a connection to the Middle East, they still are happy and have a sense of belonging, despite all the hate. These three gorgeous women are what we should strive for, which is to be happy, secure and feel connected through a sense of belonging whether it be from religion, family, friends, fetish conventions, or pop culture.

Here is the link for The Harlow Monkey study: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_O60TYAIgC4&t=44s

 

References:

Anthrocon 2017: Take Me Out To The Ballgame | “Fur, Fun, And So Much More!”. (1996). Anthrocon.org. Retrieved 23 March 2017, from http://www.anthrocon.org

BronyCon 2017. (2017). Bronycon.org. Retrieved 23 March 2017, from https://bronycon.org

Burning Man – Welcome Home. (1989). Burningman.org. Retrieved 23 March 2017, from http://burningman.org

Choenarom, C., Williams, R., & Hagerty, B. (2005). The Role of Sense of Belonging and Social Support on Stress and Depression in Individuals With Depression. Archives Of Psychiatric Nursing19(1), 18-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2004.11.003

Cohen, E., & Lancaster, A. (2014). Individual Differences in In-Person and Social Media Television Coviewing: The Role of Emotional Contagion, Need to Belong, and Coviewing Orientation. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, And Social Networking17(8), 512-518. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2013.0484

Con, F. (2017). Our Official MascotFetish Con™ – August 10 – 13, 2017 in St. Petersburg, Florida. Retrieved 23 March 2017, from http://fetishcon.com/our-official-mascot/

Hagerty, B., Williams, R., Coyne, J., & Early, M. (1996). Sense of belonging and indicators of social and psychological functioning. Archives Of Psychiatric Nursing10(4), 235-244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0883-9417(96)80029-x

Harlow, H. (1958). The nature of love. American Psychologist13(12), 673-685. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0047884

Harlow, H., Dodsworth, R., & Harlow, M. (1965). Total social isolation in monkeys. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences54(1), 90-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.54.1.90

Harlow’s Monkeys. (2017). YouTube. Retrieved 23 March 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_O60TYAIgC4&t=44s

Mellor, D., Stokes, M., Firth, L., Hayashi, Y., & Cummins, R. (2008). Need for belonging, relationship satisfaction, loneliness, and life satisfaction. Personality And Individual Differences45(3), 213-218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.03.020

Paston, B. (2009). An Exercise in Personal Exploration: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. The Surgical Technologist, 347-353.

Pillow, D., Malone, G., & Hale, W. (2015). The need to belong and its association with fully satisfying relationships: A tale of two measures. Personality And Individual Differences74, 259-264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.10.031

Shaw, P., & Hammer, T. (2016). Captain America: The Search for Belonging. Journal Of Creativity In Mental Health11(1), 118-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15401383.2015.1113151

Posted in Photography, Psychology

Psychology of Pop Culture: Conformity

Conformity and individualism are both vital components of pop culture. It surrounds us, infiltrates every aspect of our lives, encouraging us to conform. We’re then faced with a choice: Do we conform? Or, do we rebel and emphasize our individualism. But, here’s the thing. When you try to be an individual, you end up conforming. When you go to Comicon, you dress up and think you’re unique, when in fact you’re not. You’re dressed like everyone else, behave like everyone else, and have conformed to that unique setting. When you are conforming to the group, and you actually come to enjoy it, you change your line of thinking, which is the definition of cognitive dissonance.

Conformity is where we adjust our behaviour or thinking to the rules or behaviours that we see around us. We all conform to social norms in everyday living because of society’s unwritten rules and norms. From an evolutionary perspective, those you stand apart from the group where the first ones killed. instilling in us that they only way to survive was to conform and blend in. Now with pop culture we are often so saturated with pop culture references through consumerism, where these large companies was to conform and purchase their merchandise.

When you see all the Disney, Star Wars, Marvel, Harry Potter merchandise and other references to pop culture it can be difficult not to conform, especially when friends, family and people who you know have already conformed. This has happened to me on a few occasions, where I have conformed and gave in to the temptation of watching certain shows because my friends were or it was what everyone was talking about. My friend Jorinda, recommend to me (on multiple occasions) to watch BBC’s Sherlock starring Benedict Cumberbatch. in order to get her off my back, I watched the first episode. I found it to be uneventful and boring. After I told her this, she told me to watch another episode, so I did. By the end of the second episode I enjoyed it. So,through conformity and mere exposure, it caused cognitive dissonance where I have become a fan of Sherlock and Benedict Cumberbatch (but can you blame me?)

Conformity occurs on the basis of power and the fear of being indifferent. you are more likely to conform to a larger group of people, or if you admire that group of people. But conformity can also occur out of fear, and insecurity. with that being said conformity occurs with pop culture because as a culture of social being, we put so much emphasis on pop culture which is driven by consumerism and brands. We given them power which is then fed back to us for us to further conform. A good example of pop culture conformity is  the documentary  “Generation Like”, which looks at consumerism of pop culture. The underlying message of the video is that we conform more than every before, but we are under the impression that we are thinking and behaving individualistically.

Now with conformity comes the idea of individualistic, which is the favouring freedom of independent action regardless of the group’s actions or behaviours, so being independent. When you reject the idea of conforming, you probably have the idea that it’s because you are a rebel, or a non conformist. But in reality your are still conforming to an idea or belief. A good example of this is with Comic cons. Prior to Comic Con expo, you get your costume of your favourite character, whether it be Jack Sparrow, wolverine, Harley Quinn, or a Disney princess. You think are being individualistic or a special snowflake, except that when are at the Comic Expo, you find many people are dressed as the same character.  not to mention that by dressing up as a character you are conforming to someone else’s appearance in order to be like someone else, which in this case is a fictional character.

The photo collage of cosplayers is a good representation of individualistic thinking leading to conformity of behaviours that occurs within pop culture and consumerism.

This goes to show that even with even in the generation of being different and standing out, it appears that we conform more than ever, under the impression that we are special snowflakes. I believe that the reason that conformity more visibly seen in current times, especially with pop culture is because of the large amount of access we have to different types of information that we are less able to think for ourselves.

With this being said, is there even such a thing as non conformity within the realm of social media, pop culture and consumerism?

For this week’s photo I decided to put to images that represent conformity. The first image (left) is of my sister and the Hulk. there are thousands of similar poses with this hulk and they all think that they are being original and individualistic. The second image (right) is of myself, where I conformed my behaviour. Normally I don’t take images of myself, and I don’t pose is creativity or embarrassing ways but I threw that out the window and conformed my beliefs and ideals at that moment, based on environmental influences of Vegas.

Link for the “Generation Like” documentary: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dZysrlnYL_Q

References:

Chou, T., Chang, E., Dai, Q., & Wong, V. (2013). REPLACEMENT BETWEEN CONFORMITY AND COUNTERCONFORMITY IN CONSUMPTION DECISIONS1,2. Psychological Reports112(1), 125-150. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/01.07.09.pr0.112.1.125-150

Cummings, W. & Venkatesan, M. (1976). Cognitive Dissonance and Consumer Behavior: A Review of the Evidence. Journal Of Marketing Research13(3), 303. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3150746

Escalas, J. & Bettman, J. (2003). You Are What They Eat: The Influence of Reference Groups on Consumers’ Connections to Brands. Journal Of Consumer Psychology13(3), 339-348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327663jcp1303_14

Fischer, J. (2010). Why We Conform. Plos Biology8(2), e1000277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000277

Mandel, N., Rucker, D., Levav, J., & Galinsky, A. (2017). The Compensatory Consumer Behavior Model: How self-discrepancies drive consumer behavior. Journal Of Consumer Psychology27(1), 133-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2016.05.003

Monin, B., Norton, M., Cooper, J., & Hopg, M. (2004). Reacting to an Assumed Situation vs. Conforming to an Assumed Reaction: The Role of Perceived Speaker Attitude in Vicarious Dissonance. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations7(3), 207-220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1368430204046108

PBS Frontline Generation Like. (2017).

Social Influence: Crash Course Psychology #38. (2017). YouTube. Retrieved 16 March 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UGxGDdQnC1Y&t=546s

Social Thinking: Crash Course Psychology #37. (2017). YouTube. Retrieved 16 March 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h6HLDV0T5Q8

Verhaagen, D., Gaskill, F., Hetterly, J., & Daley, K. (2017). Shrink Tank Podcast Ep.40: Pros of Cons – Shrink TankShrink Tank. Retrieved 16 March 2017, from http://www.shrinktank.com/ep-40-pros-of-cons/

Posted in Photography, Psychology, Uncategorized

Psychology of Pop Culture: Escapism

This post is the beginning of a set of blogs that focus on one particular topic, analyzing the psychology behind pop culture. It will be divided into three sections, the first which will be the role of escapism in pop culture. Escapism is defined as a “mental diversion by means of entertainment or recreation, as an escape from the perceived unpleasant aspects of daily stress”.

Escapism is a way to mentally and emotionally escape from the reality when it hands you a shitty hand.  This can include everyday stresses of life, work, school, relationships, but it can also include more traumatic stresses like cancer, death, or any type of grief or distress, this can be seen in people who bury themselves in their work, indulge in their unusual behaviour, or take their usual behavior and take it to the extreme to avoid their stress and divert their attention to something more controllable. An example of this which we seen in pop culture is in the 90’s TV show Full House, in the episode of “Trouble with Danny, Danny tanner alters his behavior to the extreme where he goes from an ultimate neat freak to dirty mess after he overhears his family say terrible things and call him terrible names like “psycho with a dust mop” based on his over obsessed neat freak behaviors, this causes Danny to alter his behavior to the extreme and become very messy to combat his hurt emotions.

This is one way to escape, but the more popular form of escapism is with pop culture. People divert their focus away from their problems and focus more on happy or fulfilling pleasures to cope. By consuming pop culture to escape from our stressful reality, it can be seen by some as a survival mechanism, we spend so many hours a day be stimulating by our jobs, school, and life, that by the end of the day we are both mentally, emotionally and physically exhausted, so by consuming stupid YouTube videos, playing video games for hours, watching Netflix or catching up on our TV shows it becomes a way to survive the rest of the day or recharge our batteries. Not only is pop culture a way to survive and recharge, but with some elements of pop culture, some movies like Perks of Being a wallflower, Eat Pray Love, and pretty much any Disney Pixar movie ever made can give you a glimmer of hope, can change the way you think about life. With movies like Harry Potter, or superhero/ villain movies, they tend to create a whole universe within the movie that allows you to transport into a fantasy world and leave your reality at the door.

From this point of view escapism and transportation to fantasy realms by indulging in pop culture are seen in a positive light as a coping mechanism, and entertaining, but is there a dark side of escapism in pop culture? One article that I looked “Escaping or Coping” (Knobloch-Westerwick, Hastall and Rossmann, 2009) looks at just that: the difference between the two terms. there are few types of coping, the first is Approach Coping which is defined as “an engaged coping strategies in which the goal is to reduce, eliminate, or manage the internal or external demands of a stressor”. The second type is Avoidance Coping referring to disengagement in which “the goal is to ignore, avoid, or withdraw away from the stressor or its emotional consequences”. The third type is problem focused coping which is defined as “seeking to change or eliminate the stressor itself”. So with this being said, do we use pop culture to disengage temporarily and avoid our reality and life stressors?  I believe that when faced not just with everyday life, but with more stressful events and problems we tend to escape and avoid coping rather than approach coping and dealing with your problems, but I think this leads to a larger issue at hand, has pop culture become an addiction?

With the technology that is available today, we have the ability to escape our reality at any time of the day by using our devices to watch Netflix or play games in order to escape our struggles, does this give us the opportunity to consume pop culture more than ever before, that we are more consumed with the trivial facts and information that is available about our guilty pleasures. I know that I am guilty of knowing more about my favorite actors, actresses personal and professional lives like the name of Channing Tatum’s first-born  daughter: Everly, or Ashton and Mila’s first born daughter: Wyatt, than about the material that is taught in class.  One movie that I think emulates this addiction perfectly is Fever Pitch, starring Jimmy Fallon and Drew Barrymore, it about Ben who is a Boston Red Sox fan meets Lindsay, she soon discovers how his fandom is more of an obsession to which he life  revolves around the Boston Red Sox, which causes friction with their relationship, as he chooses the Red Sox over her, to which he regrets it when its to late. This is a good example of how addicting pop culture can be where it can affect our real life interactions.

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With the extreme consumption of pop culture, the reality of how the world works and the stories and interactions that we see in film and TV shows tend to blur. this can occur when similar events happen both in real life and in pop culture, we expect that the outcome will resemble the events that take place in pop culture. an example of this would be that when I was younger I watched Sabrina the teenage witch, which is about a teenage witch who lives in the mortal world, but the magical realm and her mortal realm collide, where she uses her magical powers to make her life easier, from bringing in celebrities to meet her, to transporting herself to mystical places or to school when she is running late. Because I watched so much of this show, I would sometimes catch myself thinking what would happen if I could use my magical powers, thinking that the idea of having magical powers was actually plausible, Leading to the idea that fiction from film, TV, video games, characters and their stories can become fact and occur in real life.

Based on this more negative view of Escapism, one article called “Expressions of Fandom: Findings from a Psychological Survey of Cosplay and Costume Wear” looks at the cosplay and the psychology behind representing a particular character. By dressing up as a particular character where it be Sailor Moon, Hello Kitty, Disney or Marvel characters, it is a way to further connect to that fantasy universe, giving you the opportunity to temporarily become that character and live their fantasy driven life. Within the realm of Escapism, participating in Cosplay and dressing up as your favourite fictional character is one reason why Comic cons  and cosplay are so popular.

I believe that from an escapist perspective dressing up in cosplay, looking into the lives of you favorite celebrity is a way to further connect to a character and their universe, in order to further bridge the gap between pop culture and real life.

In sum, by watching hours of tv and movies trying to live the lives of our favourite characters and celebrities and being a part of pop culture although is a way to recharge one’s batteries, and retreat from life’s stresses by transporting to a fictional world. It can also negatively lead to blurred lines between fact and fiction, in which when we return from our fantasy, our troubles will still be at the door waiting for us.

This week’s photo is of my cousin Elisabeth who participated in Comic Con in Calgary Alberta, in may,2016. She is standing next to the human version of Ariel from the little mermaid, holding a Flounder.  Ariel really played the part of Ariel, not only the costume but the attitude and behaviour to fully become Ariel, she spoke in a high-pitched voice and used many sea terms, and was very endearing, so she transformed into Ariel from the little mermaid, minus the tail.

References:

Addis, M. & Holbrook, M. (2010). Consumers’ identification and beyond: Attraction, reverence, and escapism in the evaluation of films. Psychology And Marketing27(9), 821-845. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mar.20359

Escapism – The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia. (2017). Artandpopularculture.com. Retrieved 9 March 2017, from http://www.artandpopularculture.com/Escapism

Green, M. (2004). Transportation Into Narrative Worlds: The Role of Prior Knowledge and Perceived Realism. Discourse Processes38(2), 247-266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15326950dp3802_5

Henning, B. (2001). Psychological escapism: predicting the amount of television viewing by need for cognition. Journal Of Communication51(1), 100-120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/joc/51.1.100

Knobloch-Westerwick, S., Hastall, M., & Rossmann, M. (2009). Coping or Escaping?. Communication Research36(2), 207-228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0093650208330252

McCain, J., Gentile, B., & Campbell, W. (2015). A Psychological Exploration of Engagement in Geek Culture. PLOS ONE10(11), e0142200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142200

Rosenberg, R. & Letamendi, A. (2013). Expressions of Fandom: Findings from a Psychological Survey of Cosplay and Costume Wear. Intensities: The Journal Of Cult Media5, 9-18.

Shrink Tank,. (2017). episode 70Guilty Pleasures & Pop Culture Escapism. Retrieved 9 March 2017, from http://www.shrinktank.com/ep-70-guilty-pleasures-pop-culture/

Sonnentag, S. (2012). Psychological Detachment From Work During Leisure Time. Current Directions In Psychological Science21(2), 114-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0963721411434979

 

Posted in Photography, Psychology

Las Vegas Biases

Over reading week, I went to Las Vegas, NV, and of course being Vegas I thought I would talk about Gambler’s Fallacy, but after studying the human behavior and relating it to  cognitive effects that  often occur in social situations, I decided to write on the observed cognitive and social effects outside the realm of gambling.

One effect that I found to reoccur is the whole idea of labels and categorization. Throughout Vegas there are hundreds of fancy restaurants with celebrity chefs, and more local restaurants that are less formal. These celebrity restaurants that are supposed to have extraordinary food because they are celebrities should have amazing cuisine. So, when sampling cuisine from Gordon Ramsay’s Pub and Grill in Caesar’s Palace, and Buddy Valastro’s Restaurant in the Venetian there was a bias that was instilled because of their famous name and status. I am a huge fan of Gordon Ramsay, so when given the chance to eat at one of his famous restaurants like Gordon Ramsay’s Pub and Grill, I was ecstatic, I thought the food was amazing even down to the mushy peas, while my sister isn’t a huge fan of Gordon Ramsay had the same meal, and thought it was sub par and overpriced: This is the power of Labeling and Categorization.

With this labelling bias, we tend to have higher opinion of something or someone based on the label that is applied. Another example of this labelling bias is that while in the casino, I was approach by an elegant younger woman who was looking for someone to hang out while playing video poker. She was a black, single mother of 2 who was dresses in a nice cocktail dress and high heels and a clutch, her name was Sophia. Over the course of the night we were drinking and gambling and having a grand old-time. The next day I was told that Sophia was a hooker/ escort because of how she was dressed and how men kept approaching her and buying us drinks. This is where the Labeling bias come in, I had met nice women who was out having fun, getting free drinks from guys and gambling, to which I was included. When this was told to other people like my family people jumped to stereotyped conclusions about “being careful that she didn’t slip something into your drink” and “she used you as a cover to remain in the bar so she could get picked up”. These stereotyped conclusions were placed on a label of hooker; I however did not view it this way. This again is the power and demise of labels and how it can lead to unnecessary stereotypes that are a lot of the time false. Labels are so powerful that once they are applied, it completely alters your perspective, and further interactions and behavior, but why?

Another effect that I observed was conformity in social environments. While attending a BlueMan Group Show, I observed several  people taking selfies with their provided     ribbon on their head, I normally don’t indulge in selfies, but I passively broke my rule and    took a few selfies. This is an example of Conformity bias which is a “tendency to behave similarly to the others in a group, even if doing so goes against your own judgment.”(Wikipedia, 2013).

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Selfie with Nicole @ Blueman Group Performance

One other form of conformity that I experienced was Situation specificity, which means that “relevant features of the behaviors of the same person are different in different situations.”(Patry, 2011) This hypothesis can be witnesses in many ways. You might normally indulge in drinking and gambling, but when in a city life Vegas, you become tempted and soon indulge in such temptations.  The reason I believe that is very impactful, and very passive is because we aren’t fully aware that environmental cues can cause behavior modification just as much as social conformity and social influence to alter one’s behavior. the two photos below are two street performers on Fremont Street, in downtown Las Vegas. One first photo (left) is an adult baby who is dressed up at Donald Trump’s son. This costume features Trump’s red power tie, and orange hair and a holding a sign that says “Trump is His Daddy”. The second performer (right) is a drag version of Marilyn Monroe, with his full on beard and white Monroe dress, he entertained the crowd by twerking and acting like a complete fool. in relation Situation specificity, these acts appear right at home on the crazy street  of Fremont, but put in any other context, like in a hotel lobby, and they would appear to be mentally deficient, and would be asked to leave, but not on Fremont street, it’s expected.

One article that I found examines how people’s decision-making skills of gambling can be skewed because of more risk taking and distracting environment from the gambling tables in Las Vegas. more money is lost when some is active, aggressive or distracted which I believe the hotel/casinos in Vegas play on these cognitive effects. While in the casino, I was offered free drinks, smokes, roses, and even massages while I play their games, this I believe is because of distraction and more risk taking occur when playing, while getting massaged by a beautiful woman and getting served free drinks, you feel like you are on top of the world and nothing can go wrong which results in more risk-taking behavior and more money that the casino is payed. Is it a ploy that hotel owners use, by adding such distractors as masseuse, drinks, bright lights and graphics of slot machines and fancy casinos and hotels that make us feel like we are living the high life and become more risk taking to give the casinos more of our hard-earned money?

Or what about the largest distraction of them all, which is the high life of Las Vegas. the fancy themed hotels that make you feel like a million dollars, so when you get home you are broke. This effect known as misdirection is not only being used by magicians but the entire sphere of  Las Vegas. A cognitive effect relating to misdirection is Inattentional blindness which is also known as perceptual blindness, is a “psychological lack of attention that is not associated with any vision defects or deficits. It may be further defined as the event in which an individual fails to recognize an unexpected stimulus that is in plain sight.” (Wikipedia, 2017) But with misdirection that occurs, at least we are being doomed by some pretty amazing sights and places: Venetian Hotel, Caesar’s Forum Shoppes and Bellaggio Hotel, and the rest of what Las Vegas Has to offer.

With that being said, I have posted some other of my photographs that I had taken while in Vegas that I believe related to this blog post, other observed human behaviour and some photos that I are unique and just look awesome.

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Heart Attack Grill Restaurant
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Jellyfish @Sharkreef aquarium Talk about Conformity
slottzilla
Slotzilla Zipline experience @ Fremont Street
chocolate-fountain
Chocolate Fountain @ Jean Philippe’s Cafe.
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Statue of Licorice Liberty @Hershey’s World.
sleeping-guy
Pure Human behaviour of non conformist sleeping on the monorail

 

References:

Foroni, F. and Rothbart, M. (2013) ‘Abandoning a label doesn’t make it disappear: The perseverance of labeling effects’, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(1), pp. 126–131. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2012.08.002.

Hearts of Compassion Publishing (2015) Las Vegas – Misdirection. Available at: http://www.heartspublishing.com/robert-roushs-blog/las-vegas-misdirection (Accessed: 3 March 2017).
Ian Carlin, B. and Robinson, D.T. (2009) Fear and loathing in Las Vegas: Evidence from blackjack tables. .
Kim, R. and Shams, L. (2017) What can magicians teach us about the brain? Available at: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/magic-neuroscience-cognition-illusions/ (Accessed: 3 March 2017).
O’Doherty, K. and Lecouteur, A. (2007) ‘“Asylum seekers”, “boat people” and “illegal immigrants”: Social categorisation in the media*’, Australian Journal of Psychology, 59(1), pp. 1–12. doi: 10.1080/00049530600941685.
Patry, J.-L. (2011) ‘Methodological consequences of situation specificity: Biases in assessments’, Frontiers in Psychology, 2. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00018.
Spranca, M., Minsk, E. and Baron, J. (1991) ‘Omission and commission in judgment and choice’, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 27(1), pp. 76–105. doi: 10.1016/0022-1031(91)90011-t.
Wikipedia (2013) Conformity bias – Lesswrongwiki. Available at: https://wiki.lesswrong.com/wiki/Conformity_bias (Accessed: 2 March 2017).
Wikipedia (2017) ‘Inattentional blindness’, in Wikipedia. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inattentional_blindness (Accessed: 3 March 2017).